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Hedges in Mandarin Learners’ Spoken Discourse:
Patterns and Pedagogical Suggestions
hedges,natural speech,politeness strategy,communication competence,pragmatic teaching,
|Publication Year :||2018|
規避語是「使事物比較模糊或比較不模糊的詞語」(Lakoff,1973)，可為言談禮貌策略的一種(Brown & Levinson,1978/1987)，透過規避語詞彙的選用，能夠達成禮貌的目的。為了解學習者使用規避語的情形，研究者採集368分鐘的自然言談語料，依照語法類別分析並統計，發現在學習者的口語中雖然不乏規避語詞彙，但是卻有特定的使用傾向。和母語者相較，學習者在情態助動詞、副詞、形容詞、量詞的使用率差異較大。
Mandarin learners, even in the correct use of words and grammar, may give an overly explicit or inappropriate feeling to native speakers. In severe cases, learners may even cause communication barriers or misunderstandings. Hedges could be a method to solve this problem. In order to know the circumstance of using hedges in Mandarin learners’ colloquialisms, the researcher collected the learners’ natural speech data, analyzed the statistics, and gave the practical teaching suggestions.
Hedges are “words whose job is to make things fuzzier or less fuzzy.”(Lakoff, 1973)Using hedges is one of the politeness strategies (Brown & Levinson, 1978/1987). The purpose of maintain politeness could be more easily achieved by using hedges in spoken discourse. To study hedges used by the Mandarin learners, the researcher collected 368 minutes of natural speech corpus from 20 Mandarin learners. According to the analysis and statistics of the corpus, it was found that compared with native speakers, Mandarin learners’ hedges use of modal auxiliary verbs, adverbs, adjectives and measure words are quite different.
Generally speaking, textbooks have a direct and important influence on teaching and learning. The researcher examined the hedge words in the textbooks. It is concluded that the difficulties of hedges use to learners are: the complexity of the vocabulary, the lack of the description of pragmatic information, and the lack of pragmatic framework training. As teaching materials provide semantic and grammatical information, pragmatic information is scarce. To enhance students’ pragmatic knowledge and communication competence, it needs to be supplemented by teachers’ teaching.
Hedges are mostly high frequency commonly used words, mainly distributed in primary and secondary level teaching materials. Students are no stranger to them. As long as guided by appropriate teaching, learners might be able to easily become familiar with hedges. According to the theory and method of pragmatic teaching, the researcher put forward practical teaching suggestions of hedges, including three steps: providing meta-information, establishing the concept of using hedges, pragmatic framework analysis and interpersonal practice. In addition, there is a teaching plan as an example. The researcher hopes this study can provide some reference for hedges teaching.
|Appears in Collections:||華語教學碩士學位學程|
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