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Acquisition of Mandarin Tones by Japanese learners: Evidence from Chinese-Japanese Homographs
Mandarin tones,Japanese pitch-accent,Chinese-Japanese homographs,tonal errors,
|Publication Year :||2016|
儘管如此，根據Flege (1995, 1996) 提出語音學習模型 (Speech Learning Model)，雙語者的兩個語音系統存在於一個共同的、可塑性高的語音空間。依循此理論脈絡，筆者認為面對母語為日語的初級學習者時，以明示教學法向學習者說明母語與目標語間的音韻共通性，仍能促使其運用母語中對於音高變化的敏感度建立聲調的音感，以利於日後掌握華語聲調的音準。最後，筆者針對日台兩地的初級聲調教材內容進行檢視與討論，並提出個人的教學建議。
The past two decades have witnessed a substantial increase of learning Chinese as a second language worldwide, and numerous studies have been conducted to understand the mechanism of Mandarin tonal acquisition by foreign language learners. While extant studies on the acquisition of Mandarin tones predominantly focused on production and perception, few studies have been conducted to untie the effect of L1 prosodic patterns on the acquisition of Mandarin tones. To remedy this gap, the present research aimed at examining potential L1 positive transfer of Japanese pitch-accent on the acquisition of Mandarin tones, with a special focus on Chinese – Japanese homographs.
While pitch movement is a syllable-level phenomenon in Mandarin and a word-level phenomenon in Japanese, both languages refer to pitch height to change the meaning of a word. This typological similarity suggests that, for Japanese learners of Mandarin, taking advantage of pitch awareness in the native language might be beneficial in the acquisition of Mandarin tones.
To test this hypothesis, fourteen Japanese learners participated in the experiment, and were asked to read a word list of Chinese-Japanese homographs. Their performance was recorded for later quantitative and qualitative analyses. A perception test was also conducted to investigate the relation between learners’ perception and production.
Our results indicated that, the accuracy rates were not significantly higher for Chinese-Japanese homographs with consistent pitch height. Meanwhile, the accuracy rates were not significantly lower for lexical sets whose tonal combinations violated Japanese pitch-accent constraints. A possible explanation is that pitch movement operates at the syllable-level in Mandarin while it operates at the word-level in Japanese. Consequently, Japanese learners lack phonological awareness of pitch correspondence between Mandarin and Japanese.
Nevertheless, as Flege (1995, 1996) notes, L1 and L2 sounds coexist in a shared and malleable system. Under this rationale, we suggest that explicit teaching, i.e. providing learners with phonological correspondence between L1 and L2, might activate learners’ pitch awareness, thus facilitating the acquisition of Mandarin tones. Based on the results of the present study, pedagogical implications for Japanese learners and suggestions for future studies were provided at the end of the thesis.
|Appears in Collections:||華語教學碩士學位學程|
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