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Gallium (Ga) and Indium (In) accumulation in rice grains in Ga- and In-contaminated paddy soils
paddy rice,emerging contaminants,gallium,indium,aluminum,competitive absorption,
|Publication Year :||2019|
|Abstract:||新興污染物鎵跟銦被廣泛運用在半導體和光電等相關產業，這些微量元素可能隨著製程中所產生之廢水進入環境中，人類可能經由食用作物而暴露在鎵跟銦當中而導致危害。由於水稻是亞洲地區90％以上人口的主食，有關稻米中鎵與銦積累的研究有限，因此，對以稻米為主食的亞洲國家，評估鎵與銦對水稻生長的潛在影響及其在稻米中的累積是重要且急迫的。因此，本研究以盆栽試驗探討在鎵和銦處理對水稻生長及其在稻榖中累積的影響。本研究水稻種植於不同鎵或銦處理 (人為添加 0、 30、 50與 100 mg Ga/In kg-1 ) 之試驗土壤中 (平鎮系、將軍系及翁子系)，水稻品種則選用台稉9號。收穫後分析植體生質量及稻榖產量，並且分析土壤孔隙水及植株中鎵、銦及鋁之濃度。孔隙水分析結果顯示，水稻種植期間孔隙水中鎵、銦及鋁之濃度隨鎵/銦處理濃度增加而增加，並且隨浸水時間增加而逐漸下降；而其在三個試驗土壤中的濃度高低依序為: 平鎮系 > 翁子系 > 將軍系。水稻植體生質量之結果顯示，不同鎵與銦添加濃度對翁子系及將軍系水稻植體根部及地上部毒害的影響不顯著；穀粒產量的部分，在翁子系土壤發現稻穀生質量在鎵與銦處理下呈現降低的趨勢。植體鎵與銦累積濃度的結果顯示，在不同部位累積濃度高低為:根部 > 地上部> 糙米，而鎵在水稻植體中的累積濃度與不同部位間的轉移能力皆大於銦。糙米中鎵濃度結果顯示，平鎮系土壤中糙米隨處理濃度增加而下降，而翁子系土壤則呈現相反的趨勢，推測是由於土壤間有效性鋁含量之差異，而鋁和鎵的競爭吸收所致相反結果。然而，在將軍系土壤之糙米鎵濃度在不同鎵處理間則無顯著差異。糙米銦濃度結果顯示，三種試驗土壤之穀粒銦濃度在不同銦處理間，除了平鎮系在高濃度銦處理下有些微降低外，其餘處理皆無顯著差異。本研究結果顯示，鎵在水稻中的轉移能力及其在稻穀中的累積濃度顯著大於銦，而在酸性土壤中鋁的有效性可能影響鎵和銦在稻穀中的累積。|
Emerging contaminants gallium (Ga) and indium (In) are commonly used in semiconductor manufacturing and electro-optical industries. As the elevated concentrations of Ga and In in the environment, humans may be exposed to them via food chain. Due to the rice is the staple food for over 90 % of the population in Asia area, and limited information is available on the accumulation of Ga and In in rice grains to date. Therefore, it is important and urgent to evaluate the potential effects of Ga and In on plant growth and its accumulation in rice grains. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Ga and In on the growth and the accumulation of Ga/In in rice plants grown in various soils. Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., cv Taikeng 9) were grown in three soils (Pc, TWz and Cf series soils) spiked with 30, 50, 100 mg kg-1 of Ga or In, respectively. After harvest, the plant biomass, rice yield, and the concentration of Ga, In and Al in the soil pore water and plant tissues were measured. The results of pore water indicated that the concentrations of Ga and In in pore water were increased with the Ga or In concentration in all tested soils, and those concentrations were decreased with growth time. The concentration of the three experimental soils was in the order of Pc > TWz > Cf. The results of growth index showed that there were no significant differences in the biomass of root and shoot in TWz and Cf soils among different Ga or In treatments, but the grain yield was significantly decreased in TWz soil. The results of plant analysis showed that the order of Ga and In accumulated in different parts of paddy rice was root > shoot > brown rice, and the accumulation and the translocation capability of Ga were higher than that of In. The Ga concentrations in brown rice decreased with the concentrations of Ga spiked in Pc soils, but those increased with Ga concentrations in TWz soils, which might be resulted from competitive uptake between Ga and Al in rice plants. However, there was no significant difference in Ga concentrations in brown rice among Ga treatments in Cf soils. The concentrations of In in brown rice slightly decreased with concentrations of In spiked in Pc soils, but such trends were absent in TWz and Cf soils. The results of this study indicate that the translocation capacity of Ga in rice and its accumulation in rice grain is significantly greater than that in In treatments, and it also found that the accumulation of Ga and In in rice grain might be affected by the Al availability in acidic soils.
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