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Study on the Associations of Dietary Intake and Blood and Urinary Metal Levels of Children and Adolescents
|Publication Year :||2019|
本研究收樣期間自2018年1月至2018年5月，邀請來自於2009年至2012年間在台大醫院兒童醫院建立的Taiwan Birth Panel Study II (TBPS II)中324位年齡為4 – 14歲之孩童及青少年作為本次研究的受試者，並收集其尿液及血液樣本，使用感應耦合電漿質譜儀(ICP-MS)分析尿液中之砷、鎘、鉛、汞及血液中砷、鎘、鉛、汞、錳、鋅、鉬、銻、銫、鎢等金屬元素濃度。同時利用問卷收集人口學資料及居住環境暴露資料，而孩童及青少年的飲食習慣則使用飲食頻率問卷(FFQ)進行調查。
尿液中金屬元素濃度分析結果顯示，尿中濃度最高的金屬元素為砷，平均濃度值為109.5 mug/g creatinine。其次為汞、鉛，其平均濃度值分別為1.84、1.03 mug/g creatinine。尿中鎘平均濃度值則最低，為0.37 mug/g creatinine。至於血液中金屬元素濃度方面，以血中鋅平均濃度值最高，為4,278 mug/L。其次為錳、鉛、汞，平均濃度值分別為19.8、7.78、6.36 mug/L。再其次為砷、銫，其平均濃度值分別為3.37、2.61 mug/L。而血中鉬、銻、鎘、鎢之平均濃度值則較低，為0.72、0.32、0.15、0.05 mug/L。
Children and adolescents are vulnerable to heavy metal exposure, with a number of adverse health effects. For the general population, food consumption is considered one of the predominant exposure pathways for toxic heavy metals, like mercury and arsenic in seafood and inorganic arsenic in rice. Although the Health Promotion Administration (HPA) has conducted several times the Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) in the past years, there has been a growing concern on the relationship between dietary intake and human biomarker metal levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was set to discern the associations of dietary intake and blood and urinary metal levels of children and adolescents.
From January 2018 to May 2018, in total, 324 participants, aged 4 – 14 years old, were recruited from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study II, which was conducted during 2009 – 2012. All participants completed questionnaires for the collection of information on demographic characteristics, living environment etc. Dietary intake by food category was assessed through Food Frequency Questionnaire administration. Urine and whole blood samples were collected from all participants for metal analysis using ICP-MS. Urine samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Pb and Hg, and whole blood samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn, Zn, Mo, Sb, Cs and W.
The highest concentration of metal in urine was found for arsenic with a mean of 109.5 mug/g creatinine, followed by mercury and lead with means of 1.84 and 1.03 mug/g creatinine, respectively, and by cadmium with a mean of 0.37 mug/g creatinine. On the other hand, the highest concentration of metal in blood was found for zinc with a mean of 4,278 mug/L, followed by manganese, lead, mercury with means of 19.8、7.78、6.36 mug/L, respectively, and by arsenic and cesium, with means of 3.37、2.61 mug/L, respectively. The means of molybdenum, antimony, cadmium and tungsten levels in blood were 0.72、0.32、0.15、0.05 mug/L, respectively.
Results of multivariate linear regression suggested that there were significantly associations of dietary intake with blood and urinary metal levels of children and adolescents. Positive correlation was found between rice consumption and blood arsenic level (p=0.002). Seafood consumption has strongly positive correlations with urinary arsenic level (p=0.001), blood arsenic level (p<0.001) and blood mercury level (p<0.001), respectively. Furthermore, taking nutritional supplements may also affect the distributions of metal levels in urine and blood. We found an inverse correlation between taking calcium supplements and urinary cadmium level (p=0.001). Meanwhile, negative correlations were also present between taking Chinese herbal medicine and blood cadmium, lead and mercury levels with p=0.002, p=0.016 and p=0.028, respectively.
Nowadays, with relatively low background levels of metal exposure, dietary intake and taking nutritional supplements have been emerging as one of the prominent pathways for human metal exposure. Future studies are warranted to illustrate potential adverse health impacts, if any, through dietary metal intake.
|Appears in Collections:||職業醫學與工業衛生研究所|
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