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From “Gift Giving” to “Blockading” : Knowledge and Control of Northern Taiwan Mountain Aboriginals in the Early Japanese Colonial Period (1895-1909)
Japanese Colonial Period,Taiwan History,Aboriginal Governing,Blockading,Aboriginal Knowledge,the Office of Pacification and Land Cultivation,Frontier Guards,
|Publication Year :||2013|
For us living in the present, a nation’s administrative mechanism is nothing new and has already become a natural part of our lives. However, when outside rulers came to Taiwan, it is bound to lead to a period of gradual transition to establish control. The process with which the Governor General of Taiwan “entered savage territory” is proof of such a transition. At the end of the 19th century, a small number of outsiders landed on Taiwan with the intention to perform investigations and surveys. When in 1895 the Governor General of Taiwan established political rule and began to look for ways to “administer” the island, the experiences and knowledge of these outsiders was preserved, becoming basis for the policy to “pacify/foster”, eventually forming a part of the administrative operating process. The experience and knowledge of these outsiders also became a reference guide for the interaction between “wild aboriginals” and officials from the Office of Pacification and Land Cultivation.
Yet, at the same time, the Office of Pacification and Land Cultivation also promoted camphor manufacturing in mountain forests, cultivation of aboriginal land, as well as interactions between aboriginals and Japanese. From the early period of Japanese rule in Taiwan, the issue of “aboriginals and aboriginal land affairs” was always an obstruction to pushing the more important tasks of the development of aboriginal land, opening up the manufacturing of camphor, and the utilization of forestry products. During the early period, administrators held onto the conviction that through nurturing/fostering, it would be possible to cause the aboriginals to become helpers in opening up the mountain forests for development. However, at any time the aboriginals would attack the camphor factories, becoming the greatest obstacle to opening up the mountain regions and expanding the camphor industry.
The Japanese were always concerned with understanding what motivated the aboriginals to kill. The field research achievements of anthropologists Torii Ryūzō and Inō Kanori were published in the Japanese anthropological world, and thus their findings were unable to immediately be used in the administrative system. Administration officials in Taiwan genuinely recognized that aboriginal head hunting was not divided by target; rather, it was based on their own needs. Seemingly as late as 1898, after Inō Kanori’s survey of Taiwan’s aboriginals was published as Taiwan’s Savage Affairs, anthropologist’s knowledge of aboriginal affairs only then had an opportunity to turn into a stable technique of governing.
Regarding the increasingly serious “savage violence”, the Office of Pacification and Land Cultivation on the grounds of “pacifying the savages”, voted against the requests of other departments to use force, blockades, or other hardline methods to deal with the issue. Finally, in June of 1898, the Office of Pacification and Land Cultivation was abolished. With the abolishment of the Office of Pacification and Land Cultivation, using coercion finally received a voice in the administration. Starting in 1900, the Governor General of Taiwan actively promoted the camphor monopoly. As before, there was a deep contradiction that existed between the mountain aboriginals that had an unfavorable impression of the camphor industry and those involved in the camphor industry, finally erupting in 1900.
The scope of discussion for this paper focuses on the northern mountain region of Taiwan, to investigate when the Governor General of Taiwan and aboriginals that did not understand what a “nation” was. Under the circumstances of completely not understanding each other, how did the rulers determine the direction of their administration? Moreover, after the gradual accumulation of experience and knowledge, how was the Governor General of Taiwan able to develop an effective method that would bring about influence in the area? This paper aims to describe the explorative and adjustment process, to investigate how the Government General of Taiwan, from an early mutual unknowing that progressively developed through different methods to exert national influence.
In total, this paper has five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction, explaining the issue to be discussed and the review of the literature.
The second chapter investigates the origins and background of early Japanese period method of “pacifying aboriginals”. When Japanese and Taiwanese aboriginals still did not understand each other, how did the experiences of a small number of people construct Japanese knowledge of Taiwan’s aboriginals? In addition, how were taking the act gift giving, the symbolic mutual drinking of alcohol, interactions of good faith seen as the core factor of dealing with aboriginals? Moreover, after the Government General of Taiwan was organized, how did the effective diplomatic methods used by the small number of early explorers come to be used in the basic administrative units in aboriginal territory, eventually becoming a part of the administrative structure itself?
The third chapter discusses what “aboriginals and aboriginal land affairs” came be viewed as the object of investigation under the administrative structure. Under the difficult requirements of entering aboriginal territory, what was the nature of the “aboriginal affairs” officials of the Government General of Taiwan converged upon through the investigation mechanism of the administrative network? Moreover, what was knowledge of “aboriginal affairs” that helped the Government General of Taiwan to control Taiwan’s mountain regions?
The fourth chapter is aimed at showing, after 1900, how the “frontier guard system” became the primary method for confronting aboriginals. Moreover, what kind of role did blockades and the control of the distribution of goods from the mountain areas, play during this time period?
The fifth chapter is the conclusion.
|Appears in Collections:||歷史學系|
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