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A Research on the Sacrifices and Ceremonies of Mourning and Spiritual Beings in The Analects of Confucius
Ceremonies of mourning,ceremonies of sacrifice,Ren,feel at ease,spiritual beings,The Analects of Confucius,
|Publication Year :||2013|
The Analects of Confucius is used as the basic data in the essay. First, it is intended to analyze how funeral deals, influences and functions to the dead and living when facing death by examining the contexts related to ceremonies of mourning and sacrifices in The Analects of Confucius. It is considered that ceremonies of mourning has two aspects of settlement toward handling with the dead including physical body and spirit (形與精); on the other hand, as it deals with the living, it has the settlement for both body and mind. The Analects of Confucius has creative construction toward the basis of the ceremonies of mourning. Ceremonies of mourning contains the concerns about the emotional and mental needs of the living. It is considered that children are taken care of by the parents, therefore if children could not deal with the arrangement of ceremonies of mourning well, they will not feel at ease about it which becomes the inner motivation to practice ceremonies. The Analects of Confucius sees the ceremonies of mourning for parents as the rare scene where people adequately show their true feelings, otherwise it would be seen as heartless(不仁). Hence here, it is from previous idea that facing inner emotion honestly is one of the essential requirements of “Ren”, which makes ceremonies of mourning the key event to “inspire Ren”. When confronting with the ceremonies of sacrifice following the ceremonies of mourning, what The Analects of Confucius values begins with every preparation such as fasting before sacrifice, and that it puts emphasis on the respect and piety for the participation of sacrifice so as to show consistent emotional continuity before and after the death of the dead from those who run the sacrifice. By ceremonies of mourning and sacrifice of “Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice…..”, death is seen as the key extended vision for the connection between the past, present and future. The Analects of Confucius highly respects ceremonies of mourning and sacrifice and denies perfunctory attitude without any respect. However, if the behavior and attitude of the living during ceremonies of mourning and sacrifice are emphasized singlehandedly, the practice of ceremonies will degenerate as simply following the rules or become the place where the living do their performance. It is considered in this essay that The Analects of Confucius approves the dead to become spiritual beings for people to offer sacrifice. Meanwhile, due to the respect given to spiritual being, people learn to keep an appropriate distance. By learning to serve parents and the living will one follow a step by step order to serve spiritual being properly. Here, The Analects of Confucius gives instruction to the judgment of “Ren” through ceremonies of mourning. On the other hand, as one becomes spiritual being after death without disappearing, the respect toward parents and ancestors from the living strings by ceremonies of mourning and sacrifice. Therefore, ceremonies of mourning and sacrifice and spiritual beings in The Analects of Confucius consists a complete framework connecting the past, present and future.
|Appears in Collections:||哲學系|
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