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Three-dimensional Refractive Index Distributions and Light Scattering Properties of Epithelial Cells and Tissue
Refractive index,Epithelial tissue,Cancer,Light scattering properties,
|Publication Year :||2014|
Cancer is one of the main causes of death in the world. Most cancers are of epithelial origin. The progression of epithelial dysplasia, a precursor of many tumors of stratified squamous epithelia, is accompanied by changes of tissue and cellular structures in the epithelium. These changes in structure are expected to alter light scattering properties of the cells and tissue. Although many light scattering diagnostic techniques have been proposed for diagnosing cancers, the complete and quantitative understanding of the correlation between scattering properties and structures of epithelial cells/tissue was difficult due to lack of realistic quantitative refractive indices distributions of cells/tissue. The current study aimed to propose a method for investigating the correlation between structures and light scattering properties of epithelial cells and tissue. Firstly, the three-dimensional refractive index microscope was developed and used for measuring the structures of cells and tissue. The scattering properties of cells and tissue were obtained by the finite-difference time-domain tool and the scattering-phase theorem. The results of investigating esophageal epithelia demonstrate that the average scattering coefficient of the precancerous epithelia was 45.2% higher than that of normal epithelia. The parameters that mainly determine the scattering coefficients are the cell density and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio which are the common indicators of histological diagnosis. The standard deviation of refractive indices of epithelial cells and tissue is also important parameter. The study of backscattering of single cell presents that for in vivo cells periodic oscillations in spectral and angular backscattering patterns are mainly dependent on the axial and transversal sizes of nuclei. The nuclear size can be extracted by fitting backscattering patterns with Mie theory. The precancerous and normal cells, for example, cervical cells, can be distinguished by estimating the nuclear sizes. In summary, the proposed analysis method can be extended for investigating the correlation between structures and scattering properties of any cells and tissue in addition to stratified squamous epithelial tissue. The study of the scattering coefficients of epithelial tissue suggests that the epithelial precancers can be early detected by using diffuse reflectance techniques measuring scattering coefficients of in vivo tissue. Additionally, the precancers of epithelial tissue, accompanied by enlarged nuclei, can be also diagnosed by sizing nuclear size by either angular or spectral backscattering patterns with Mie theory.
|Appears in Collections:||生醫電子與資訊學研究所|
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