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Evaluation of Sensorineural Hearing Loss Diagnosis in the Adult Population of Ghana: A Retrospective Study Applying the Brighton Collaboration Standard Case Definition
|Advisor:||陳為堅 教授(Wei-Jane Chen)|
Senosorineural Hearing loss,Hearing loss,Lassa fever,Vaccine,Komfo Anokye Teaching Ho,
|Publication Year :||2021|
Background: Hearing loss has been ranked as the fourth leading contributor to years lived with disability worldwide and this is a silent and under-reported public health problem with numerous financial and social life disadvantages. This is mostly visible among poor vulnerable populations in developing countries where more than eighty percent of people with hearing loss reside. The WHO projects in the year 2050 more than 900 million people will be suffering from various forms of hearing loss.
Aim: This study evaluated the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in the adult population of Ghana using the Brighton Collaboration standard case definition.
Methods: The research design was a retrospective study approach, conducted to review the diagnosis of patients with SNHL in the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana at the Eye Ear Nose Throat Department who were within the ages of 18 – 59 years from the period of January, 2018 to June, 2020 based on the Brighton Collaboration standard case definition.
Results: Among 300 participants of this study, 165 were males and 135 females.
The distributions of SNHL levels of diagnosis certainty among 300 patients according to the BC case classifications were on three classification levels; level (L1) 253 (84.3%), level 2 (L2) 2 (0.6%) and level 4 (L4) 45 (15%) respectively and out of 300, 45 cases were unclassifiable (at level 4). When separated for males and females shows that, the overall data, male patients had a lower percentage of level 1 and higher percentage of level 4 than female patients did. When patients from different sources were presented separately, the male-female differences in the distribution of diagnosis certainty level were the same for patients from Manual Data but became non-significant for patients from Electronic Data.
The distributions of SNHL levels of diagnosis certainty were compared between two sources of data of patients from Manual Data had a higher percentage of level 1 and a lower percentage of level 4 than patients from Electronic Data.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is well established that, the BC standard case definition is applicable in Ghana at the tertiary hospital level. The evidence of the data indicates that, majority of the cases were diagnosis at level 1. This could mean at tertiary hospital level in Ghana and other West African countries the BC criteria can be met and majority of the diagnosis will fall within the BC standard definition. However, four out of the eight key element examinations namely; Acoustic Brainstem Response, Abnormal Otoacoustic Emission, Abnormal Behavior/Neurodevelopment Assessment, and Abnormal Remote Screening were not available, so therefore it is important for the hospital management to work towards putting infrastructure to meet such demands.
Recommendations: The study suggests the BC should fund further studies to conduct evaluation of SNHL diagnosis at the district, municipal and regional hospital levels in Ghana and the other West African countries. Also, hospitals participating in Lassa fever vaccine trials should put in place systems to record cases. Moreover, physicians should ensure that patients referred to private clinics for Otoacoustic emission and Abnormal Brainstem Response examinations should bring back the reports to be entered onto the medical records.
Keywords: Hearing loss, Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Lassa fever, Vaccine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital.
|Appears in Collections:||全球衛生碩士/博士學位學程|
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