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|Title:||臺灣新興熱帶臭蟲 (半翅目：臭蟲科) 之調查|
Survey on new emerging Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in Taiwan
Bed bug,Cimex hemipterus,invasion species,genetic diversity,Wolbachia,
|Publication Year :||2020|
|Abstract:||臭蟲屬於半翅目臭蟲科 (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)，翅退化且具吸血特性，為暫時停留的騷擾性外寄生蟲，族群擴散主要因宿主移動而被動傳播，如躲藏在私人物品上。取食人類血液的二種重要臭蟲是溫帶臭蟲 (Cimex lectularius L.) 和熱帶臭蟲 (Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius))，雖然未被證明可傳播疾病，但其叮咬後可能造成嚴重的皮膚過敏和發癢等臨床症狀。在臺灣，自從1952年抗瘧時期施行室內噴灑DDT後，嚴重的臭蟲為害事件便十分少見，偶有新聞報導但相關臭蟲研究有限。根據文獻：自1990年代以來，臭蟲正迅速傳播在已發展國家都會地區。為了預防臭蟲再度傳入臺灣造成危害，本研究針對在臺灣危害的臭蟲種類、出沒場所、地理分佈、族群基因組成進行調查。採樣策略與4家病媒業者合作，並訪查全臺138個漁港及環保署轄下二手家具回收廠7間。為了比對臭蟲之COI基因，向馬來西亞理科大學 (Universiti Sains Malaysia) 分讓9個樣點90隻蟲體，以及與印尼迪波內戈羅大學 (Diponegoro University) 合作採集到1個樣點17隻蟲體。採集的樣品首先以形態鑑定物種，根據前胸背板長寬比1 : 2.5與邊緣延伸程度，做溫帶與熱帶臭蟲分類，再透過分子生物學的PCR方法分析臭蟲粒線體DNA的COI與其內共生物Wolbachia的wsp基因片段，以了解臭蟲族群多樣性。本研究於2019年間與病媒業者合作，共收集了26個樣點的臭蟲，分別來自外籍工人的宿舍 (N = 8)、漁船 (N = 6)、飯店房間 (N = 5)、有看護的居家 (N = 5) 與病媒業者未提供採樣環境的樣點 (N = 2；時間點2018~2019)；樣點分布於10個縣市，其中有42.3 % (11/26) 的樣本點來自台中市；採集環境為東南亞籍占76.9% (20/26) ，其中80% (16/20) 來自印尼。於2019年9月間漁港的訪查結果中，經口頭詢問各港口漁工與漁民，在23.9% (33/138) 的漁港中宣稱遇到臭蟲問題；另外，二手家具回收廠的調查並無發現臭蟲。在物種鑑定結果裡，分子與形態鑑定的結果全是熱帶臭蟲。而比對國內外共35個樣點的單倍體多樣性，COI序列上發現有5個單倍體型，其中第一型單倍體序列與來自中國、馬來西亞、泰國、伊朗、印度、孟加拉、肯亞、塞內加爾的序列相同；在wsp序列上，有10條序列比對為B群Wolbachia且一致相同；27條序列比對為F群共有3個單倍體型，其中第一型單倍體序列與來自馬來西亞、印尼、印度的序列相同。根據以上採集資料和單倍體型的結果，發現在居家與漁船採集的臭蟲基因多樣性較高，在未來，防範熱帶臭蟲的引入需要更多的監測與研究投入，並多加管理外籍移工的生活環境與飯店旅館，以早期阻斷臭蟲入侵與擴散。|
Bed bugs are hematophagous, wingless, temporary ectoparasites in the family Cimicidae of order Hemiptera and spread out mainly by passive dispersal, e.g., hitchhiking on personal belongings. Two well-known species of bed bugs feeding on human are Cimex lectularius L. (common bed bug) and Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius) (tropical bed bug). Although bed bugs have not been proved to transmit disease but their bites may cause clinical symptom such as severe skin allergy and itching. In Taiwan, severe infestation of bed bugs rarely happened since DDT residual house spraying of malaria control program was conducted in 1952. There were occasional news reports but research on bed bugs was limited. However, current records showed bed bugs are rapidly widespread among urban area in developed countries since 1990s. To prevent introduction of bed bugs in Taiwan, the aims of this study are to understand bed bug species, infested premises, distribution, and population genetic composition. The sampling strategies are collaborating with 4 pest control companies and survey on 138 fishery harbors and 7 second-hand furniture plants of Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in Taiwan. To compare COI gene of bed bug, 90 bed bugs in 9 sites shared from Universiti Sains Malaysia and 17 bed bugs in 1 site collected in Indonesia with Diponegoro University cooperation. The collected samples were initially conducted morphological identification. The common and tropical bed bug was mainly distinguished by pronotum whether more than 2.5 times as wide as long at the middle; furthermore, to observe haplotype diversity among population, mtDNA of bed bugs and its endosymbiont were observed by PCR products of partial sequences, COI and wsp (Wolbachia surface protein). In this study, total 26 collected sites of bed bugs, cooperating with pest control operators (PCOs) in 2019, were from worker dorms of foreign worker (N = 8), fishing vessels (N = 6), hotel rooms (N = 5), residential rooms with caregiver (N = 5), and unknown sources which were PCO shared (N = 2) since 2018 to 2019; location of collections was distributed in 10 counties including 42.3% (11/26) were from Taichung city; the nationality of migrant workers and travelers had 76.9% (20/26) were Southeast Asia countries, especially 80% (16/20) were Indonesia. The results of oral survey on fishery harbors showed 23.9% (33/138) harbors were reported infestation of bed bugs encountered in September, 2019. Also, infestation of bed bugs was not found in any second-hand furniture plants of EPA. The results of morphological and molecular identification showed 100% were Cimex hemipterus. To compare haplotype diversity among Taiwan and reference samples (N = 35), COI sequences showed 5 haplotypes and haplotype 1 was similar to sequences from China, Malaysia, Thailand, Iran, India, Bangladesh, Kenya, and Senegal. The wsp sequences showed 10 sequences were similar to Wolbachia supergroup B and 27 were similar to F group including 3 haplotypes. Also, the haplotype 1 was similar to sequences from Malaysia, Indonesia, and India. According to collection data and haplotype results, samples collected from residential room and fishing vessel had higher genetic diversity. In the future, preventing introduction of tropical bed bugs will require more monitoring effort and research; also, hotel and living environment of migrant workers need to enhance management of bed bugs to stop the invasion and dispersal of bed bugs.
|Appears in Collections:||環境與職業健康科學研究所|
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