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Study on Herbicides and Winter Overseeding on the Management
of Bermudagrass turf
golf course,turf,overseeding,herbicides,herbicides mixture,putting green,
|Publication Year :||2019|
|Abstract:||草坪草廣泛的被利用在休閒運動場所之中，因其順滑、細軟等特性可以保護從事運動的人員免受傷。除了提供運動用的平滑表面外，草坪的外觀亦是影響其價值的重要指標。本文主要探討如何在精準農業的角度下合理性使用除草劑與冬季交播技術來管理雜草，以提供平滑的運動表面及維持果嶺品質。本實驗選用5種不同的除草劑 ; 分別是伏速隆(Flazasulfuron)、快克草(Quinclorac)、本達隆(Bentazon)、殺芬草(Saflufenacil)與施得圃(Pendimethalin) ; 5種除草劑再根據其防治對象的不同及施用時機的不同來混合兩種及三種使用並評估各處理對於莎草(Sedge)、禾本科(Grass)及闊葉類(Boardleaf)雜草的防治效果。在除草劑實驗中，5種藥劑在單劑施用下都能得到預期中甚至更為理想的效果。伏速隆及本達隆都能對莎草科得到100%的防治率，快克草對於禾本科雜草亦能達到90%的防治率。殺芬草則得到對於莎草及禾本科雜草有79%及100%的防治率。而本來應該只具備萌前防治效果的施得圃對於莎草科植株亦有87%的防治效果。而雙劑及三劑混合施用時則因為除草劑之間的交互作用而令到防治效果跟預計的有偏差，例如伏速隆及本達隆兩者混施時會對禾本科雜草有94%的防治率;而兩者單獨施用時則只有大概三成的防治率。所以除草劑之間的交互作用在施用除草劑時亦應該作為考慮之一而且亦可以作為將來的試驗方向。冬季交播則以粗莖藍草(Poa trivialis)作為交播用的溫帶草種，以記錄在果嶺正常營運的情況及不同土壤的鈣含量下的草坪品質與雜草覆蓋率情形。在本實驗中，12月10日進行冬季交播，在一星期發芽後，每月以草坪比色計測量交播後的果嶺的Grass Index 、NDVI及RED/IR反射量。草坪一直維持在良好的品質;Grass Index維持在7左右，直到3月下旬開始凋亡並轉換回交播前的熱帶百慕達草。在冬季期間及春季轉換初期果嶺上的溫帶草的密度一直維持在5成左右，加上本來存在的百慕達草，草坪一直維持在高密度的狀況，雜草無從入侵。可見在除草劑的合理運用及冬季交播技術可以再進一步改善現今高爾夫球場的雜草管理狀況並作為日後發展精準農業的研究方向。|
Turf grass is widely used as sport surface for protecting athlete due to its smooth and fine texture. Apart from providing playing surface , the appearance of turf is also one of the most important characteristic of its value. This article is going to study about removing weeds by the application of herbicides in order to maintain the smoothness of turf ; on the other hand , to record the growing status of overseeded putting green. There are 5 herbicides were selected for this experiment: Flazasulfuron , Quinclorac , Bentazon , Saflufenacil and Pendimethalin. Those herbicides were applied alone and mixed according to their controlling targets and application timing. The controlling efficiency to Sedge , Grass and boardleaf weeds was assigned at the end of the experiment. In this experiment , those tested herbicides give decent and better than expected result when its were applied alone. Both Flazasulfuron and Bentazon controlled Sedge and Grass 100%. Quinclorac controlled Grass up to 90%. 79% of Sedge and all Grass were controlled by Saflufenacil. Pendimethalin, which was expected as pre-emergency herbicide, controlled Sedge 87%. When two or three herbicides mixed , some results are unexpected. The interaction of herbicides may affect the results of herbicides so it should be considered before application.For example, the Flazasulfuron and Bentazon mixture controlled Grass 94% but only around 30% of Grass were reduced when they were applied separately. Poa trivialis was selected as the temperate turf grass variety for winter overseeding in this study. We recorded the growing status of putting greens under different soil calcium content and the golf course are still opened for playing. In this experiment, the overseeding process was carried out on 10th December 2018 and the seeds were germinated one week later. After the seeds were germinated the Grass index of putting green were at 7 and lasted for around three months until the end of March 2019. The Poa trivialis were started to wither away at the end of March and the Bermuda were started to dominate at the putting greens. During the winter , the Grass Index , NDVI and RED/IR refectant were recorded by turf colour meter monthly. During the winter and at the beginning of spring transition the coverage of poa trivialis is at least 50% and coupled with the Bermuda grass the turf is in high density. The result is weeds cannot invade into the putting green. Reasonable use of herbicides and winter overseeding can further improve the weeds management programme of golf course in Taiwan and these can be the future research tendency of precision agriculture.
|Appears in Collections:||農藝學系|
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