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Work Sustainability and Occupational Health Inequalities in an Aging Society: National Surveys of Working People of Taiwan
work sustainability,psychosocial work factors,employment,socioeconomic status,health inequalities,
|Publication Year :||2019|
Background: Due to the low birth rates and the aging of the population, the working population begins to decline in Taiwan. In order to maintain the balance of working population and led older workers to prolong their working life, work sustainability which concerns workers’ intention to stay at the current job until retirement age should be valued. Especially, because older workers have higher health risk than young workers, workplace conditions are more important to older workers’ health. Furthermore, workers in lower socioeconomic status are more likely to have poor working conditions, resulting in health inequalities. However, few studied have been conducted on these issues in Taiwan.
Objectives: There were two objectives in this study. First, we studied the prevalence of work sustainability by social demographics and industry and examined its associations with psychosocial work factors. Secondly, we analyzed the differences between older workers and non-older worker in social demographics, working conditions and health status across socioeconomic status. Also examined were the associations of working conditions, socioeconomic status, and health status, stratified by age groups.
Methods: Study subjects were participants of a national survey conducted in 2010 and 2016, consisting of 11,209 male and 8,189 female workers aged between 25 to 55 years old in 2010; 8,419 male and 6,454 female workers aged between 25 to 65 years old in 2016. Psychosocial work factors were assessed by the Chinese version of Job Content Questionnaire (C-JCQ), which include job control, psychological job demands, physical job demands and job security. Work sustainability was assessed by a single question: “Thinking of your health status, would you expect yourself to stay at the current job at the age of 60 years old?”. Socioeconomic status was measured by income. Health status included self-rated health, mental health, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries.
Results: Research 1: Descriptive analyses showed that 14.2% and 17.1% of male and female workers did not intend to stay the current job at the age of 60 years old. Lack of intention was more prevalent in workers in certain industrial sectors including electronics manufacturing industries for both genders and health care industry for female workers. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated that lack of intention to stay was associated with nonstandard work shift, higher psychosocial demands, physically demanding work, lower job control and higher job insecurity.
Research 2: It was found older worker had a higher proportion of the highest and lowest income levels than non-older workers. Lower psychological job demands, lower job-family conflict, non-fixed term in the employment contract, non-fixed salary in pay system and work hours per week< 40hours were more prevalent among older workers. Poorer self-rated health in both gender, poorer mental health in men, higher musculoskeletal disorders in women and higher occupational injuries in men were more prevalent among older workers. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated that income was associated with health status, but it became non-significant when working conditions were added in older workers but still significant in non-older workers.
Conclusion: Findings of this study highlight the high risk groups of low work sustainability and indicated that there were income-related differences in working conditions and health status in older workers and non-older workers. While the population is aging quickly, it is necessary to design preventive strategies to prevent psychosocial work factors. Through improving work sustainability and reducing health inequalities in older workers, we hope to increase workers’ working life and maintain the balance between work and health.
|Appears in Collections:||健康政策與管理研究所|
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