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Age-related Differences in the Neural Correlates of Visual Perspective Taking in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Adolescents
autism spectrum disorder (ASD),visual perspective taking (VPT),functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),age-related differences,
|Publication Year :||2019|
|Abstract:||視覺觀點轉換是社會互動的必要能力，使我們得以正確推論他人視野內所見之物。過去研究發現自閉症患者在視覺觀點轉換的能力上有所缺損，並伴隨著異常的大腦神經活動。然而，對於自閉症患者視覺觀點轉換的神經機制之發展變化仍未有明確的瞭解。因此，本研究旨在探討自閉症患者與一般發展組參與者視覺觀點轉換的神經機制之年齡相關差異。透過功能性磁振造影搭配點數作業（Dot Task），本研究檢驗52位自閉症參與者（26位青少年、26位成人）以及54位一般發展參與者（27位青少年、27位成人）視覺觀點轉換之神經機制。在點數作業中，首先呈現一句短語，短語提示了受試者或卡通人物的視野中有幾個點數。隨後出現一張包含卡通人物以及1-3個隨機點數所組成的圖片，受試者需指認短語和圖片是否一致。過程中受試者需判斷自己（自我觀點）或卡通人物（他人觀點）的視野中有幾個點數，且兩者視野中的點數可能相同（觀點一致）或不同（觀點不一致）。研究結果顯示「組別×年齡」交互作用在右側顳頂交界區（right temporal-parietal junction, rTPJ）和內側前額葉皮質（medial prefrontal cortex, mPFC）達到統計顯著。從青少年期到成人期，一般發展組在雙側顳頂交界區和內側前額葉皮質未有顯著的活化量改變；而自閉症組在右側顳頂交界區發現顯著的活化量改變。相較一般發展青少年，自閉症青少年在右側顳頂交界區有較高活化量，此區域與快速、較低認知負荷的觀點計算有關，顯示自閉症青少年在計算觀點上需要花費更多精力。值得一提的是，此傾向未出現於自閉症成人。另一方面，自閉症青少年較一般發展青少年在內側前額葉皮質有較低活化量，此區域與緩慢、較高認知負荷的觀點選擇有關，顯示自閉症青少年在選擇觀點上有明顯的功能缺損。綜上所述，本研究認為自閉症青少年與一般發展青少年之視覺觀點轉換神經機制不同，且兩者神經機制的發展相異。|
Visual perspective taking (VPT), the ability to adopt others’ visual view, is essential for social interaction. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found deficits in VPT and aberrant brain activation during VPT tasks, yet little is known about developmental changes in neural correlates of VPT. This study examined age-related neural correlates of VPT in individuals with ASD as compared to typically developing controls (TD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess VPT processing of 52 ASD (26 adolescents, 26 adults) and 54 TD (27 adolescents, 27 adults) through the Dot Task. In the Dot Task, participants would view a picture of a room with an avatar and 1-3 random dots. The picture followed a phrase which provided a cue to perspective and the number of dots seen by participants (Self-perspective) or the avatar (Other-perspective). The number of dots participants and the avatar saw would be either the same (Consistent) or different (Inconsistent). Participants judged whether the text and the picture were congruent. Results showed a significant interaction between group (ASD, TD) × age (Adolescent, Adult) in the rTPJ and the mPFC. From adolescence to adulthood, the TD group revealed no significant activation in the bilateral TPJ and the mPFC. However, greater activation in the rTPJ was found in adolescents with ASD. For adolescents, ASD produced greater activation in the rTPJ as compared to TD. The rTPJ is considered to be involved in perspective calculating which would be completed rapidly and effortlessly. This difference implies that adolescents with ASD may need to take more effort to calculate perspectives from self and others. Notably, this tendency did not be seen in adults with ASD. In contrast, adolescents with ASD produced less activation in the mPFC as compared to TD adolescents. The mPFC is thought to be involved in perspective selecting which would be completed slowly and cognitively-demanding. This difference implies that adolescents with ASD may have impaired functioning with competing perspectives selection. These findings imply distinct functional organizations of VPT and different age-related neural correlates between adolescents with ASD and TD adolescents.
|Appears in Collections:||心理學系|
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