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The influence of human distribution patterns on perceived crowding
Perceived Crowding,Immersive Virtual Reality,Visual approach,Validity,Personal space,
|Publication Year :||2019|
沈浸式虛擬實境技術(Immersive Virtual Reality, IVR)已經逐漸普及，可讓受測者融於模擬真實情況的虛擬環境中。然而實際上IVR是否能替代現有的研究工具應用在擁擠知覺的研究中，尚未有充份的研究證明，因此本篇主要分為兩個研究，研究一為確認IVR作為工具測量景觀擁擠知覺上的效度，研究二為使用IVR技術探討使用者的分佈模式對擁擠知覺是否有影響。
以上兩個研究實證IVR是測量擁擠知覺有效的工具，而同時也証明了使用者的分佈模式會影響擁擠知覺。因此未來在調查遊憩容許量方面,可以 IVR 作為實際人群的替代媒介，並提供研究最大的實驗控制。相較過去的研究將能夠更有效的模擬出預想的狀況，在未來應用上可以更進一步的了解使用者行為。
Owing to the rapid growth in recreational demand, excessive visitors and disrupted environment have brought negative recreational experiences. To retain its quality, concept of recreational carrying capacity was developed using perceived crowding (PC) as an indicator. In other words, PC has been viewed as an important standard in the field of recreation. Furthermore, no empirical evidence had shown if the distribution patterns of surrounding people would influence PC. A possible reason is the difficulty of manipulating distribution pattern of surrounding people both in 2D photo simulations and on-site experiments.
Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) has become a popular research equipment which allows subjects to integrate into virtual environments that simulate real-world situations. However, doubts are still existed that if IVR could be an acceptable substitution for real environment in crowding studies, since its validity has not been tested empirically. For the issues aforementioned, this thesis consisted of two major parts. The first part tested the validity of IVR technique for applying in PC research. The second part intend to explore the influence of user distribution patterns on PC using IVR technique.
In the first study, paired comparisons indicated that photographic and IVR evaluations were significantly different, regardless of PC and acceptability. Furthermore, there is no significant difference between IVR evaluations and either on-site or panoramic picture evaluations. All of the paired evaluations in the three experiments were significantly correlated, which indicated the similar trends of the different methods.
The results of the second study revealed that the dispersed/concentrated distribution pattern of the surrounding people would induce different levels of PC and acceptability. Results also showed the increasing number of far-range people would not influence PC and acceptability, when the amount of the near-range people reached a certain level. Furthermore, the study also found subjects’ evaluation were different when same amount of people distributed in front or behind the subjects.
The results from the above two studies confirmed IVR technique could be a valid tool in measuring PC. In the same time, this study also proved that one’s evaluation of PC and acceptability would be influenced by the distribution patterns of surrounding people. Therefore, IVR could serve as an ideal research tool in recreational studies, which could provide representative results while providing sufficient study controls. Comparing to past researches, it could simulate expected situations effectively, and facilitate our understandings of user behavior in future applications.
|Appears in Collections:||園藝暨景觀學系|
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