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Crop-damage events caused by Taiwan macaque (Macaca cyclopis) and its influencing factors
Taiwanese macaque,species distribution model,crop-damage event,El Niño-Southern Oscillation,energy requirement,natural food,
|Publication Year :||2021|
|Abstract:||臺灣獼猴 (Macaca cyclopis) 為臺灣主要造成農作物危害的物種之一，由於其較強的學習能力，防治措施往往收效甚微，致使危害事件頻傳。因此，相關研究大多集中在少數較嚴重的地區，對於影響獼猴農害 (猴害) 的大尺度時空關係的探討卻較少提及。本研究藉收集2000-2019年猴害相關媒體報導探討猴害事件的年度、季節與受害農作種類趨勢，進而研究氣候因子、聖嬰現象與前一年雨量對猴害發生的影響，並收集臺灣獼猴出現資料建構物種分布模式，再結合猴害資料，探討猴害事件與獼猴棲息地間之空間關係。期望能找出影響猴害之重要因素。研究結果顯示冬溫下降、較低的前一年年雨量和強烈的聖嬰現象對獼猴農害事件有可見的影響，由此推論自然食物量的減少以及能量需求的增加，迫使獼猴前往農地覓食。而在2000-2019年間獼害事件數量並無明顯年度與季節趨勢；受害最嚴重的地區為南投縣及雲林縣近山地區；柑橘類、核果類、梨果類、大漿果類、根莖菜類等能量較高之作物為受害最嚴重之作物；物種分布模式顯示臺灣獼猴分布於全臺低海拔至高海拔山區，對獼猴農害與棲地之距離分析，顯示90% 之猴害發生於棲地以及於棲地外圍1km範圍內，表示獼猴受限於行動力以及避免靠近人為開發區，較無法前往距離棲息地較遠的地區捕食。本研究整合歷年獼猴農害資料，解析其近二十年的事件架構，期望更加全面了解獼猴農害。並建議參照本研究之猴害風險地圖，位於森林、淺山地區等高風險地區之農地，應以高效電圍網進行防治，或可改植獼猴不喜之作物以迴避風險，且若前一年的雨量偏低、當年冬溫較低時應加強對獼猴的防治措施，以預防獼猴侵害。|
Taiwanese macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is one of the species that cause severe damage to crops in Taiwan. Due to its high learning ability, prevention and control measures often have little effect, resulting in frequent damages. Thus, most of the relevant researches are focus on those severely affected areas, and the large-scale spatiotemporal relationship that affects the crop-damage event caused by Taiwanese macaques (CDM) is rarely mentioned. This study collected news reports related to CDM from 2000 to 2019 as data set to explore annual and seasonal trends of CDM, the damaged degree of all types of crop, and the climate factors that affect the CDM. Next, combine the CDM data with the species distribution model of Taiwanese macaque to find out the spatial relationship between CDM and the habitat of Taiwanese macaque.The result shows lower winter temperature, lower annual rainfall of the previous year, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation had an obvious impact on the CDM. It implied that the increase in energy requirement and the decrease in the amount of natural food forced Taiwanese macaques to go to farmland for food. There was no obvious annual and seasonal trend in the number of CDM from 2000 to 2019; the most severely affected areas were near mountain areas in Nantou County and Yunlin County; citruses, stone fruits, pear fruits, large berries, root vegetables are the most severely damaged crops; the species distribution model shows that Taiwanese macaques are distributed in the low-altitude to high-altitude mountainous areas of Taiwan. The analysis of the distance between the location of CDM and the habitat shows that 90% of CDM occurs in the habitat and within 1km outside of the habitat, it means that the Taiwanese macaques are restricted by their mobility and avoid approaching man-made development areas, and are less able to go to areas far away from the habitat to hunt.This study collects the data on the CDM over the years, analyzes the event structure of the past two decades, and hopes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the CDM. It is also suggested to control and prevent CDM based on the CDM risk map in this study. Farmland located in high-risk areas such as forests and shallow mountain areas should be controlled with high-efficiency measures like electric fences, or replant macaque-hated crops to avoid risks. While in the year with lower rainfall and the lower winter temperature, the prevention and control measures of CDM should be strengthened to prevent macaques from invading.
|Appears in Collections:||生態學與演化生物學研究所|
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