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Bench scale study for assessment of DBPs formation from human endogenous organic precursors
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs),UV/H2O2,UV/Cl2,Perspiration,Urine,Disinfection by-products (DBPs),
|Publication Year :||2018|
然而，游泳池中泳客所釋放出的有機質 (例如: 汗液、尿液、皮屑、頭髮、保養品等物質)可能跟消毒劑反應而產生消毒副產物，包括三鹵甲烷 (Trihalomethanes, THMs)、鹵乙酸(Haloacetic acids, HAAs)、鹵乙氰 (Haloacetonitriles, HAN)、鹵酮 (Haloketone, HKs)等物質。雖然目前國內外已有研究針對游泳池做實場採樣調查，但是游泳池池水中所累積的組成物質極為複雜，所以實場採樣的結果較難釐清個別來源內源性有機前質的消毒副產物生成特性，以及它們經過不同處理後的處理效果。
研究結果顯示，隨著內源性有機前質不斷排放到持續加氯的水體裡，不僅會使水中三鹵甲烷、鹵乙酸、鹵乙氰的濃度不斷累積，也會使得水體需氯量大幅增加而引發不揮發性的消毒除副產物 - 鹵乙酸的生成潛勢上升。另外，臭氧、UV/H2O2、UV/Cl2對於汗液內的三鹵甲烷的生成均有良好的控制效果，但僅有UV/H2O2可以同時降低汗液及尿液的三鹵甲烷及鹵乙酸生成潛能，其對水中總有機碳的礦化效果也較顯著。
Disinfection is one of the main treatment processes for recirculating water in swimming pools. The main purpose of disinfection is to kill or inactive pathogens and to protect the public from waterborne diseases. On the other hand, some disinfectants such as chlorine can provide necessary residuals in treated water and prevent microbial regrowth in treated water. The concentration of free residual chlorine for swimming pools in Taipei City should be between 0.3 ~ 0.7 mg/L according to the current sanitation regulation of Center of Disease Control of Taipei.
However, various organic precursors in water could react with chlorine and produce some disinfection by-product (DBPs) including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs), halonitromethanes (HNMs) and so on. Nowadays, there is still unclear concerning how different sources of organic endogenous matter from human affect the DBPs formation; therefore how to promote the treatment efficiencies to reduce the DBPs formation via different treatments have been an issue for management of swimming pool water qualities. This study set up a bench-scale system for assessment of DBPs formation potentials of human endogenous organic matter after ozonation, UV/H2O2 and UV/Cl2 pretreatments. Urine and perspiration were selected to represent the major human endogenous organics in this study, since these organics have been considered as the main organic compositions in swimming pools and spas. Although ozonation is widely used in swimming pools, the studies of UV/H2O2 and UV/Cl2 in swimming pools water are still limited. The three AOP treatments were conducted to elucidate their effects on water quality controls and DBPs reductions in order to provide more background knowledge for the swimming pool managements.
The results of this study showed that, continuous addition of body fluids into reaction chamber would result in more and more productions of THMs, HAAs and HANs in swimming pool water. Moreover, the accumulations of swimmer’s body fluids not only result in increasing of DBPs, but also enhance the chlorine demands and much higher DBPs formations in swimming pool water. In addition, ozonation, UV/Cl2 and UV/H2O2 treatments can degrade the organic precursor of DBPs in perspiration, and make the concentrations of DBPs decreased eventually. The results also showed that only the UV/H2O2 treatment can lower down the DBPs formations for both the perspiration and urine; however, both UV/Cl2 and UV/H2O2 methods need to be operated for a sufficient contact time to prevent the DBPs rise in water in the beginning stage of the oxidation treatments.
|Appears in Collections:||環境衛生研究所|
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