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Antecedents of Agribusiness Entrepreneurial Intentions and Their Influences
social responsibility,social capital and support,entrepreneurial self-efficacy,entrepreneurial intentions,entrepreneurial attitude and sense of mission,entrepreneurial alertness,agribusiness entrepreneurship,
|Publication Year :||2018|
臺灣農企業創業目前正處於萌芽階段，雖然泰半屬於中小型規模，但對於本土農業的未來發展卻有深遠的影響。很多特定領域的創業研究，會起始於探究創業家的創業意圖，因為創業意圖即是個人對於特定目標的注意力、經驗，和行為的心智狀態。因此，本研究聚焦在探索「農企業創業意圖之前置因素與其影響」。本研究整合創業行動理論（entrepreneurial event theory）與計劃行為理論（theory of planned behavior），再依據臺灣農業環境及農企業創業的特殊性，進行變項的適域化及農業化，擴充或轉換變項為「創業態度與使命感」、「創業警覺性」、「社會責任」、「創業自我效能」，以及「社會資本與支持」，以期更貼近臺灣農企業創業的情境。此外，本研究重新建構農企業創業意圖的研究架構，開發出一份具備高信度與高效度，且更貼近臺灣農業情境之農企業創業意圖調查量表。
Agriculture faced with development challenges such as the high degree of liberalization, climate change, natural resource limitations, and a lack of sales channels, national governments, including Taiwan, have been actively crafting policies to help their agricultural sectors to transition and upgrade. Entrepreneurship plays an influential role in a country’s economic development as it can promote economic activity. Therefore, Taiwan’s government has been actively promoting various support policies related to agricultural innovation and entrepreneurship, and the infusion of new blood into agricultural entrepreneurship will create a vibrant environment for Taiwan’s agricultural industry to flourish in.
In Taiwan, agribusiness entrepreneurship is currently in its infancy. In many specific fields, entrepreneurship research starts with an exploration of entrepreneurial intentions, as such intentions reflect the mental state of an individual with respect to specific objectives. This study thus focused on examining the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions and their influence on agricultural entrepreneurship. In the study, the entrepreneurial event theory and theory of planned behavior were incorporated, and the study’s variables were adapted and “agriculturized” by considering the characteristics of Taiwan’s agribusiness entrepreneurship environments. The variables that were expanded or converted were “entrepreneurial attitude and sense of mission,” “entrepreneurial alertness,” “social responsibility,” “entrepreneurial self-efficacy,” and “social capital and support.” The study also reconstructed the research framework for agribusiness entrepreneurial intentions, and developed a questionnaire that was adapted to Taiwan’s agricultural environment and possessed a high degree of reliability and validity.
The questionnaire respondents for this study included second generation of farm owners, agricultural managers, the young farmer representatives, staff members of agricultural associations and agricultural production cooperatives, students from The Farmers’ Academy, and potential agribusiness entrepreneurs who are interested in the agricultural industry. 1,476 questionnaires were collected, of which 1,286 were valid. Data analysis was then conducted using SPSS to examine the correlation among the involved variables.
The results indicated that the independent variables which had significant influences on agribusiness entrepreneurial intentions were “entrepreneurial attitude and sense of mission,” “entrepreneurial self-efficacy,” and “social responsibility.” A further analysis was carried out to examine the correlation between the independent variables' factors and agribusiness entrepreneurial intentions. The top three influencing factors were revealed, in descending order, to be “entrepreneurial attitude,” “planning and communication,” and “agricultural sense of mission.” Although two variables, “evaluation and judgment” and “bonding social capital,” reached a significant level, their influences were comparatively weak. The influences of the other factors did not reach a significant level.
Furthermore, an analysis of the variance in the demographic variables indicated the following: that gender differences affected the influence of “agricultural sense of mission” and “scan and search” on entrepreneurial intentions; that the older a respondent was, the greater the influence of “planning and communication”; that the more highly educated a respondent was, the greater the influence of “entrepreneurial attitude”; that the higher a respondent’s annual income was, the greater the influence of “entrepreneurial attitude” and “planning and communication” and the weaker the influence of “agricultural sense of mission” on entrepreneurial intentions; that the longer the period of time a respondent has spent on agricultural work, the greater the influence of “entrepreneurial attitude” and the weaker the influence of “agricultural sense of mission” on entrepreneurial intentions; that the influence of agricultural identity on entrepreneurial intentions diverged slightly, with “entrepreneurial attitude” having a greater influence on members of farming households and “planning and communication” having a significantly greater influence on cross-domain farmers; and that the influence of “agricultural sense of mission” on entrepreneurial intentions was greater among respondents with no entrepreneurial experience than among those who had entrepreneurial experience.
The above analyses showed that the factor structure of the antecedent variables (of entrepreneurial intentions) and its explanatory power with respect to entrepreneurial intentions will differ depending on industry type and the state of the individuals involved in the industry. The study also found that the influence of demographic variables on entrepreneurial intentions will differ depending on industry type and the state of the individuals involved in the industry. Therefore, administrative institutions can refer to this study’s findings in order to carry out resource allocation more effectively, to develop entrepreneurship guidance strategies and training activities (e.g. to strengthen the “entrepreneurial attitude and sense of mission” of potential entrepreneurs and uncover entrepreneurial needs), and to implement the appropriate measures and solutions based on an individual’s demographic background (agricultural experience, period of time spent in agricultural work, and agricultural identity). In doing so, they will be able to increase entrepreneurial intentions in the agricultural industry.
|Appears in Collections:||生物產業傳播暨發展學系|
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