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Different Conscious Conditions Induce Opposite Effect of Attention on Priming
consciousness,attention,unconscious processing,priming effect,
|Publication Year :||2014|
|Abstract:||先前的研究已經指出注意力和意識皆會影響知覺處理。然而，意識狀態的不同是否影響注意力對於知覺處理的作用卻很少被探討。本研究採用三個實驗來討論此一問題。每個實驗中皆有意識和無意識區集，而受試者的注意力則利用雙作業派典來操弄。雙作業中的主要作業 (注意力分散作業) 要求受試者計算多個移動小球的運動方向改變次數。該任務的難度 (透過球的移動速度來定義) 被分成五個等級。而在次要作業中，受試者須要辨識一個目標刺激，該目標刺激會於一個和移動小球一起呈現的促發刺激消失後出現。三個實驗中的促發刺激和目標刺激是不同的。實驗一採用的是向左或向右指的箭頭。實驗二則使用中文字和非字來取代。而在實驗三中，促發刺激是中文字，而目標刺激可能是中文字或非字；其中促發刺激和為中文字的目標刺激間的語義關係可能為相關或非相關。受試者對於次要作業的反應時間將被記錄，而和諧和非和諧狀況下的反應時間差則代表了促發效果的大小。意識和無意識區集是由促發刺激的對比來決定 (高對比代表意識區集而低對比代表無意識區集)，這樣的設置會再由一個確認問題來確認。實驗結果顯示在實驗一和二中，意識促發效果為正向促發而無意識促發效果為負向促發，而且促發效果的大小會隨著主要作業難度的增加而線性下降。然而，實驗三中並無發現任何的促發效果。我們的結論支持意識狀態的不同會影響注意力對促發效果的作用。|
Previous studies have shown that both attention and consciousness can influence perceptual processes. However, whether different conscious conditions affect attention’s effect on perception is little explored. In this study, we addressed the issue with three experiments, of which the trials were separated into conscious and unconscious blocks. Participants’ attention was manipulated by a dual-task paradigm. The primary (attention-distracting) task required the participants to count the directional changes made by multiple moving disks. The task difficulty (defined by the disks’ speed) was divided into five levels. A secondary task, which required the participants to identify the target, appeared after the disappearance of a prime that was shown with the moving disks. The target and the prime were different in the three experiments. In Experiment 1, left- or right-pointed arrows were adopted as prime or target. In Experiment 2, Chinese words or non-words were used instead. And in Experiment 3, the prime was a Chinese word while the target was either a word or non-word, and the semantic relationship between the prime and the real-word target was either related or unrelated. Reaction times (RTs) to the secondary task were measured, and the RT difference between the congruent and incongruent conditions indexed the priming effect. The conscious and unconscious blocks were defined by the contrast of the prime (high contrast for the conscious block and low for the unconscious block) and confirmed by a manipulation check. The results showed a positive priming effect in the conscious condition and a negative priming effect in the unconscious condition for Experiment 1 and 2, and the magnitude of the priming effect decreased linearly with the increment of primary-task difficulty within both conditions. However, no semantic priming effect was found in Experiment 3. Our result suggests that consciousness does modulate the effect of attention on priming.
|Appears in Collections:||腦與心智科學研究所|
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