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18th-19th Century Spread of New Images of Antiquities between China and Korea: focusing on Chaekgado
Cultural relics,Art collection,Antiquity,Joseon art,Chaekgado,Chaekgeori,Cultural exchange between the East and the West,
|Publication Year :||2020|
China has a long history of collecting culture. The appearance of cultural artifacts and images related to cultural relic collections has also affected the development of Chinese art history. In the late Ming Dynasty, the contingent of cultural relic collectors continued to expand, and antique relics were mainly for family furnishings, showing that the owner's liberal elegance and antiquarianism became fashionable. The images of cultural relics had new changes during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. People's interest in the use, display and decoration of cultural relics began to be reflected in the subject matter of painting, and related visual images also began to appear popular. The images related to the display and utilization of cultural relics began to appear in prints mainly during the Wanli period in the Ming Dynasty, and gradually became popular on porcelain as decorative ornaments.
For example, we can see that the new cultural relic images are not only widely adopted, but also appear to be schematic from the example of shipwreck out of water porcelain Wan-Jiao No. 1 which is believed came from early Qing Dynasty Kangxi period. There were also some new changes in the new images of cultural relics in mid-Qing Dynasty. One of the phenomena was the emphasis on depicting the cultural relics pedestal, which also reflected the people's attention to the cultural relics display at the time. In addition, the combination of new Chinese cultural relics images and Western painting techniques began to appear as realistic images of cultural relics. According to the literature, it can be seen that the Qing court produced virtual display shelves and began to decorate and use them inside the palace. Such realistic images combined with Western painting techniques were not only produced in the Qing court, but also passed on to Chinese wallpaper appeared in Europe in the 18th century, which reflects the fact that relevant images were also drawn in the Chinese folk art at its time.
The Chaekgado that were popular in the late Joseon Dynasty shown a correlation with the new images of Chinese cultural relics. According to the record of literature, the Chaekgado was produced in the royal court of the Joseon Dynasty. And the court painter Kim, Hong-do was good at it. Although there is no Chaekgado picture of Kim, Hong-do handed down at present, the similarity of the Chinese object schema and Chaekgado drawings of Kim, Hong-do in several works not only corroborates the documentary records of the Chaekgado picture of Kim, Hong-do, but also reflects the images of cultural relics in the Chaekgado picture handed down. In the early days of the establishment of the Chaekgado picture, the image had already been adopted by the painter in the style of depicting images of Chinese cultural relics. Moreover, the images of Chinese cultural relics in Kim, Hong-do's paintings are similar to the images of cultural relics popular in the Qing Dynasty at the same time. In addition, Kim, Hong-do was involved in the production of Buddhist paintings of Yong-Ju Buddhist Temple established by the royal family of Joseon. The use of the Chiaroscuro in the Buddist paintings of the Yong-Ju Temple is a more prominent feature. The Chiaroscuro is related to the Chinese prints imported into Europe and Japan in the mid-Qing Dynasty. At the same time, the Chiaroscuro in the paintings of the royal Joseon in the late 18th century also showed a correlation with the Chaekgado. As a result, the possible sources of Western painting techniques for the Chaekgado drawings may be related to Chinese folk art painting.
A pattern can also be found in the way of presentation for objects from the Chaekgado. For example, Gu are rarely depicted individually, but are usually paired with specific objects, including coral and peacock feathers. This phenomenon shows that not only the transcript of a single object becomes a reference for the depiction, but also the combination of objects becomes a part of the image, and it has a pattern to follow. It is obvious that the depiction of the cultural relics in the Chaekgado and the format of the image shows that the cultural relics on the Chaekgado are drawn according to the pattern. Although the appearance of the Chaekgado is related to the spread of Chinese cultural relics collection knowledge, in order to visualize the images of Chinese cultural relics, the artist should be based on the image knowledge. In addition, the Chaekgado is an example of how the Western painting techniques were used in the late Joseon Dynasty paintings. The Chaekgado use the Western Perspective method, the Chiaroscuro and the Trompe-l'oeil painting method to create a realistic virtual display shelf. In the introduction and usage of Western painting techniques on the Chaekgado, we can see examples of Joseon royal painters adjusting how they localize according to local conditions such as the form of painting and architectural space.
We can say the Chaekgado gets popular due to two factors. First, the hype of collecting Chinese cultural relics in the late Joseon society. Second, the frequent cultural exchanges through dispatch envoy to Beijing, Joseon people have increased opportunities to know Chinese cultural relics directly or indirectly. Moreover, people from Joseon Dynasty directly see Western paintings from Catholic Church in Beijing and other places with their own eyes, and even enjoy Western paintings they bought from the journey. Under such experience and understanding, the Chaekgado became very popular in the late Joseon society. In fact, the images of Chinese new cultural relics not only affected the Chaekgado. At that time, Joseon Dynasty's porcelain, architecture and other arts can also see images similar to the Chaekgado. The new image of Chinese cultural relics imported to the Joseon society became a new painting genre. The popularity of the Chaekgado in Joseon society has driven the circulation and popularity of related image patterns.
The appearance of the Chaekgado is related to the frequent exchange of people and objects through the dispatch envoy to Beijing. However, in this research we can see the cultural exchange between China and the late Joseon Dynasty are not only a matter of exchange between them, but also related to the cultural exchange between China and other Western countries. Although its painting techniques were influenced by the West, the Chaekgado painting was created by the cultural exchange between China and Joseon Dynasty shown in this research is similar to the painting introduced to Europe and Japan at the time of the Qing Dynasty. Which means that the Qing Dynasty paintings were influenced by the West then spread and influenced the local culture of European, Japanese and Joseon Korea.
|Appears in Collections:||藝術史研究所|
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