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A Study Of Uchimura Kanzō’s Thought:The Religious Problems Of Modern Intellectuals
Uchimura Kanz?Bushido,Christianity,Jingoism,Pacifism,Non-church movement,
|Publication Year :||2013|
身為知識分子的內村對於當代日本所面臨的戰爭問題—「戰爭與和平」，在一八九四年以英文發表『甲午戰爭的正義』(Justification of the Korean War)主張戰爭，並稱之為「義戰」，但卻在甲午戰爭後，批評甲午戰爭是掠奪戰，一轉立場，之後成為全然的反戰論者，並且向世界倡導「無教會主義」的基督信仰。在一八九五年發表『我如何成為基督徒』(How I became a Christian)自己的信仰歷程。其思想從主戰轉為反戰，其後奉行的和平思想的流變，和他本身的武士道和基督教信仰有著重大的關聯。
This thesis aims to explore the development of thoughts and religious problems of Uchimura Kanzō (内村 鑑三, March 26, 1861 – March 28, 1930), one of the modern Japanese intellectuals.
The Meiji Restoration change Japan's political and social structure enormously. Under the slogan of 'Enrich the country, strengthen the military, the restoration, this campaign accelerated Japan’s industrialization, which led to Japan’s rise as a military power. Japanese proved their national capabilities through winning both the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1985 and the Russo-Japanese War.
Uchimura Kanzō was born in a traditional family of samurai. He accepted modern Western education after the Meiji Restoration of 1868. During this period he was converted to the Christianity and determined to dedicate himself to Japan and Jesus Christ. As a samurai and Christian, Uchimura Kanzō’s identity includes both oriental and occidental elements, and can be viewed as an epitome of Japan during the Meiji Restoration. His life is closely related to “bushido,” “Christianity,” and “Japan.”
Uchimura Kanzō is famous for his critiques against Japanese foreign policy. Although his writing in English “Justification of the Korean War” supported Japanese government’s campaign, Uchimura Kanzō changed his position after t the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1985. Disappointed at Japanese government’s demands for interests of China, he criticized such behavior turned their military victory into plunder. Uchimura Kanzō was therefore often considered to be the most well-known pre-World War II Japanese pacifist.
Uchimura Kanzō’s most famous essay “How I became a Christian” was published in 1895. This article recorded his struggle to develop an accommodable form of Christianity in Japan. However, simultaneously he rejected denominations and all formal church organizations as Western accretions. Instead, he pursued the ideal of “mukyokai” – “we-need-no-church principle.” Such principle accelerated the spread of Christianity in Japan and enlarged the stratifications of loyal disciples, ranging from intellectual elites to unknown farmers. These assertions have a lot of do to with his samurai origin and Christian religion.
This thesis also discusses the thoughts of other modern intellectuals, including Nitobe Inazou (新渡戸 稲造1862—1933), Tokutomi Sohō (德富 蘇峰,1863—1957),and Koutoku Shuusui(幸徳 秋水1871—1911).Comparing and contrasting their thoughts and opinions with Uchimura Kanzō’s in response to the transformation of Japan, such as the social changes after the Meiji Restoration and the positions of China and Japan during The First & Second World War, is conducive to our understanding of Uchimura Kanzō’s particularities.
Keywords: Uchimura Kanzō, Bushido, Christianity, Jingoism, Pacifism, Non-church movement
|Appears in Collections:||日本語文學系|
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